Bayern have won 10 of their last 11 Bundesliga games (Agency Photo)Revenge is to be high on Robert Kovac’s mind when he takes his title chasing Bayern Munich side to Borussia Park to face Dieter Hecking’s Gladbach in Saturday’s late kick off.The Bavarians have recovered from a shaky start to the Bundesliga season by collecting thirty out of the last thirty three available points to move within striking distance of leaders Borussia Dortmund.Borussia Moenchengladbach were one of a cluster of teams responsible for Kovac’s early season misery as they maintained their reputation of giving Bayern Munich a bloody nose by winning 3-1 at the Allianz Arena courtesy of a brace from then newly recruited French striker Alassane Plea.An indifferent run of form after the winter break has seen Gladbach surrender interest in the title. Injury to lead striker Plea and kamikaze defending has seen their previously impregnable home fortress twice breached by identical 0-3 losses to Hertha Berlin and Wolfsburg.Pacesetters Borussia Dortmund have a chance to extend their advantage atop the standings to six points when they travel to relegation threatened Augsburg on Friday.Attention falls on 18-year-old English winger Jadon Sancho, who became the youngest ever scorer of nine Bundesliga goals in last week’s 3-2 victory over Bayer Leverkusen.An equally captivating match up takes place at the Commerzbank Arena in Frankfurt where the Eagles host Julian Nagelsmann’s revitalised Hoffenheim.Fifteen goal Bundesliga top scorer Luka Jovic will be raring to go against a Hoffenheim side not noted for keeping clean sheets.Another young Englishman, Reiss Nelson, will feature as part of the visitors’ striking cast.Other appetising confrontations to look out for include the relegation six pointer at the Mercedes Benz Arena between hosts Stuttgart and Thomas Doll’s Hannover, RB Leipzig’s visit to rock bottom Nuremberg and the matchup between Bayer Leverkusen and Freiburg at the Bay Arena.THE BUNDESLIGA FIXTURES:FRIDAY: -Augsburg v Borussia Dortmund @10:30pmSATURDAY: -Eintracht Frankfurt v Hoffenheim @5:30pm-Bayer Leverkusen v Freiburg @5:30pm-Nuremberg v RB Leipzig @5:30pm-Hertha Berlin v Mainz @5:30pm-Schalke v Fortuna Düsseldorf @5:30pm-Gladbach v Bayern Munich @8:30pmSUNDAY: -Stuttgart v Hannover @5:30pm-Wolfsburg v Werder Bremen @8pmComments Tags: Allan SsekamateGerman Bundesliga
New signing Marco Djuricin took just half an hour to score his first Brentford goal as they led at the break at Elland Road.The on-loan Red Bull Salzburg striker provided the finishing touch from Alan Judge’s pass after a counter-attack.The pair had combined a moment before the goal, with Djuricin setting up Judge but he fired over the bar.Austria international Djuricin was involved from the off and Brentford went close in the opening minute, Gaetano Berardi clearing off the line to deny Konstantin Kerschbaumer.At the other end, Bees keeper David Button saved from Charlie Taylor from distance and former Brentford midfielder Sturt Dallas curled a right-footed shot well over.As well as Djuricin, two further Brentford signings were named in the squad, though Liverpool loanee Sergi Canos and former Shrewsbury midfielder Ryan Woods had a watching brief from the bench.Brentford: Button; Colin, Dean, Tarkowski, Bidwell; McCormack, Diagouraga, Kerschbaumer; Vibe, Djuricin, Judge.Subs: Bonham, Hofmann, Woods, O’Connell, Barbet, Udumaga, Canos.Follow West London Sport on TwitterFind us on Facebook
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest U.S. Wheat Associates (USW) and the National Association of Wheat Growers (NAWG) unveiled the results of an econometric study showing that excessive farm support in several advanced developing countries could cost U.S. wheat farmers nearly $1 billion in revenue every year. USW recently showed that the governments of China, India, Turkey and Brazil have dramatically increased subsidies for domestic wheat production over the past ten years to levels that far exceed their World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements. This study confirms that these policies have a detrimental effect on U.S. and world wheat farmers and global wheat trade.“I believe we have shown through these studies that the old perceptions about farm support and trade are clearly wrong,” said Alan Tracy, USW President. “Today, it is the farm subsidies in a few advanced developing countries, not developed country policies, which disrupt normal trade flows and distort world wheat prices. These rapidly growing subsidies cause direct, serious and now measurable impacts on the prices that U.S. farmers receive for their grain.”Noted agricultural economist Dermot Hayes and two of his colleagues at Iowa State University conducted the study. The goal was to determine what would happen to U.S. and global wheat production, trade and prices if domestic support in China, India, Turkey and Brazil were removed. To accomplish this, Hayes and his colleagues applied the price support and input subsidy data identified in a November 2014 study by DTB Associates to the respected CARD-FAPRI econometric model. Results showed that if all support were removed from all four countries, annual U.S. wheat production would increase by more than 53 million bushels, farm gate prices would increase by nearly $0.30 per bushel and U.S. wheat farmers would receive $947 million more in annual revenue.“The results confirm that if domestic support were removed wheat prices in the countries modeled would go down and farmers would plant less wheat, but domestic consumption would go up,” Hayes said. “The lower supply would lead to higher global wheat prices, which tend to benefit wheat exporting countries including the United States.”The study also indicated that with such changes, wheat trade flows would shift and the four countries would increase net imports by nearly 10 million metric tons (MMT). Hayes said the model estimated the United States would capture more than 20% of such an increase to export an additional 2.2 MMT compared to the model’s baseline if there were no changes in domestic support in those countries.Hayes’ team also used the model to predict the net effect that eliminating support in individual countries would have. Those results indicated that domestic support for Chinese wheat production alone has the largest individual effect. If support there ended, Chinese imports would grow from nearly 2 MMT per year to more than 7.5 MMT per year. This would still be less than the 9 MMT annual tariff rate quota that China agreed to in its WTO accession commitments. Hayes said the model showed that even with the predicted changes, China, India, and Turkey would continue to be at least 90% self-sufficient in wheat production. Eliminating domestic support would have the least effect in Brazil where support levels are lower than the other countries. Shifting the narrativeHayes also noted that this study compares future scenarios to data from a market situation in which wheat cash prices were significantly higher than they are now. For example, in addition to Chinese government input subsidies coupled to wheat production, the DTB Associates study in 2014 showed Chinese farmers have government minimum support prices of more than $10.00 per bushel.“Wheat prices have plummeted more than 30% since last year, a significant portion of which is due to these countries’ market distorting policies, which send the wrong signals to their farmers. This hurts American family farms like mine even more,” said Brett Blankenship, who grows soft white wheat near Washtucna, Wash., and is the current President of the National Association of Wheat Growers (NAWG).Referring to current negotiations in the Doha round, Blankenship added, “It is totally unacceptable to tolerate demands from countries who are in violation of their WTO commitments, who continue with these huge levels of support while demanding concessions from the United States. The American wheat farmer will not give away any more.”WTO records show that the United States has consistently met its commitments, never exceeding its Aggregate Measure of Support (AMS) limit of $19.1 billion. But other country’s proposals made as part of the Doha round would require the United States to drastically cut its limit, while members with growing programs would not be expected to make meaningful contributions. Deputy U.S. Trade Representative Amb. Michael Punke has called this a “mind-boggling imbalance” that firmly underpins the U.S. position that it is critical to put facts on the table for a frank discussion about the real dynamic of world agricultural production and trade.The new study indicated that wheat farmers outside of the four countries analyzed would benefit by reducing domestic supports. Hayes said the model showed global wheat cash prices would increase by more than four percent and world net trade would increase by five percent if domestic support is removed in all four countries. The study suggested that there would be benefits even from partial changes in price supports and input subsidies, although Hayes said the magnitude of the cash price and trade increase would depend on the size of the removal in each country.“Since these subsidies are the acts of sovereign governments, our farmers cannot battle them alone. We are working with USTR and USDA to determine our next steps, including a possible WTO challenge,” Tracy concluded.USW and NAWG have posted the entire report online at www.uswheat.org/policy and http://www.wheatworld.org/issues/trade/. Results of the two DTB Associates studies measuring domestic support in advanced developing countries, visit www.dtbassociates.com/docs/DomesticSupportStudy11-2014.pdf andwww.dtbassociates.com/docs/domesticsupportstudy.pdf. For a third party analysis of individual policy measures by country, visit http://www.oecd.org/tad/agricultural-policies/producerandconsumersupportestimatesdatabase.htm#country.
Author: Christian Maino Vieytes, B.S. Nutritional Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, M.S. Candidate, Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignWhy exercise?The contemporary context of living has given way to a generation of individuals with sedentary and generally unhealthy lifestyles. Along with these changes, we have seen dramatic rises in chronic illness such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.1,2 It is not merely coincidence that these phenomena have coincided in their manifestation. Large epidemiological studies have demonstrated that at least some form of vigorous daily exercise is associated with decreasing risks of mortality compared to not performing any form at all.3 Disequilibrium in the work-life balance and industrialization of economies in Western societies have culminated with the sedentary posts that the majority of society’s members have been relegated to. Unfortunately, many fail to meet the threshold minimum for daily exercise.What if I don’t have time?One may find themselves repeating, “I wish I had time to exercise.” The truth is that obtaining adequate amounts of daily exercise may be easier than one believes. The traditional exercise archetypes that we envision give us the impression of exercise being a strenuous or difficult undertaking. However, it must be underscored that simply getting up from one’s desk and taking a 10-minute walk, a few times per day, may satisfy your daily requirement. The key to incorporating a new exercise regimen involves a gradual approach and setting short-term goals, whereby the level of exercise is augmented slowly.4,5 This may take the form of a 15-30 minute walk in the early phases and may eventually progress to a jog of the same duration. Many are drawn to the practice of yoga, as it unifies both a physical exercise routine with a mindfulness component that has been demonstrated to potentially alleviate symptoms of depression and anxiety.6The body’s potential for adaptation to exercise is remarkable. The earliest changes seen involve enhanced capability of red blood cells to carry oxygen throughout the body, enhanced ability of the body’s cells to utilize fat more efficiently as a fuel source, as well as changes to the structure and function of the muscles themselves.7–10 Exercise has also been shown to elevate levels of a key hormone-like molecule called brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which has been associated with promoting brain health.11,12Ok, how do I get started?The public health recommendations for weekly exercise time are all but absolute. Different health authorities and organizations set their own standards. Generally speaking, the consensus amongst scientists is that we should strive to get 150 minutes of moderate intensity or 75 minutes of high-intensity exercise per week.13 This can be as easy as taking a brisk 30-minute walk five times throughout the week. Other common recommendations often touted by public health campaigns include reaching 10,000 steps per day or engaging in and maintaining a garden!14 The exercise regimen need not be highly structured—the importance lies in moving your body through whatever form that takes.What are other benefits of exercise?The benefits of exercise extend beyond that of just physical well-being into the realm of the psychological. Moving one’s body has also been demonstrated to help improve mood and abate the severity of depression in those who suffer from the condition.15 It has also revealed to be an effective remedy for diminishing symptoms of anxiety and for combatting insomnia.16,17 Many of the studies that examine the relationships between exercise and psychological function are novel, and further research in this arena will clarify these findings. Nonetheless, these early results do support a role for exercise in promoting psychological well-being.We have examined only a subset of benefits that can be accrued through a regular exercise program. Critically, physical movement forms a core component of what we understand to encompass overall wellness and well-being given the effects extended upon different domains of health. As highlighted, these span from the physical to the psychological and neurological. These are the ingredients to longevity, but more importantly, for living a balanced and healthy life. It is critical to choose an activity that will be fun and provide joy at the same time that it imparts all of the benefits we have discussed. Playing a sport with friends is an ideal way of achieving your daily exercise requirement while at the same time building community. Simply moving our bodies more is what the goal should be. ReferencesOwen N, Salmon J, Koohsari MJ, Turrell G, Giles-Corti B. Sedentary behaviour and health: mapping environmental and social contexts to underpin chronic disease prevention. Br J Sports Med. 2014;48(3):174-177. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2013-093107Blair SN. Physical inactivity: the biggest public health problem of the 21st century. Br J Sports Med. 2009;43(1):1.Lee I-M, Hsieh C, Paffenbarger RS. Exercise Intensity and Longevity in Men: The Harvard Alumni Health Study. JAMA. 1995;273(15):1179-1184. doi:10.1001/jama.1995.03520390039030Self‐Efficacy, Perceptions of Success, and Intrinsic Motivation for Exercise1 – McAuley – 1991 – Journal of Applied Social Psychology – Wiley Online Library. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1991.tb00493.x. Accessed May 25, 2019.Vallerand RJ, Reid G. On the Causal Effects of Perceived Competence on Intrinsic Motivation: A Test of Cognitive Evaluation Theory. J Sport Psychol. 1984;6(1):94-102. doi:10.1123/jsp.6.1.94Cabral P, Meyer HB, Ames D. Effectiveness of Yoga Therapy as a Complementary Treatment for Major Psychiatric Disorders: A Meta-Analysis. Prim Care Companion CNS Disord. 2011;13(4). doi:10.4088/PCC.10r01068Faulkner JA, Brewer GJ, Eaton JW. Adaptation of the Red Blood Cell to Muscular Exercise. In: Brewer GJ, ed. Red Cell Metabolism and Function: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Red Cell Metabolism and Function, Held at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, October 1–3, 1969. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Boston, MA: Springer US; 1970:213-227. doi:10.1007/978-1-4684-3195-7_15Clarkson PM, Nosaka K, Braun B. Muscle function after exercise-induced muscle damage and rapid adaptation. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1992;24(5):512-520.Egan B, Zierath JR. Exercise Metabolism and the Molecular Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Adaptation. Cell Metab. 2013;17(2):162-184. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2012.12.012Krzentowski G, Pirnay F, Luyckx AS, et al. Metabolic adaptations in post-exercise recovery. Clin Physiol. 1982;2(4):277-288. doi:10.1111/j.1475-097X.1982.tb00032.xGómez-Pinilla F, Ying Z, Roy RR, Molteni R, Edgerton VR. Voluntary Exercise Induces a BDNF-Mediated Mechanism That Promotes Neuroplasticity. J Neurophysiol. 2002;88(5):2187-2195. doi:10.1152/jn.00152.2002Seifert T, Brassard P, Wissenberg M, et al. Endurance training enhances BDNF release from the human brain. Am J Physiol-Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010;298(2):R372-R377. doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00525.2009Siddiqui NI, Nessa A, Hossain MA. Regular physical exercise: way to healthy life. Mymensingh Med J MMJ. 2010;19(1):154-158.Katzmarzyk PT, Lee I-M, Martin CK, Blair SN. Epidemiology of Physical Activity and Exercise Training in the United States. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2017;60(1):3-10. doi:10.1016/j.pcad.2017.01.004Craft LL, Landers DM. The Effect of Exercise on Clinical Depression and Depression Resulting from Mental Illness: A Meta-Analysis. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 1998;20(4):339-357. doi:10.1123/jsep.20.4.339Carek PJ, Laibstain SE, Carek SM. Exercise for the Treatment of Depression and Anxiety. Int J Psychiatry Med. 2011;41(1):15-28. doi:10.2190/PM.41.1.cReid KJ, Baron KG, Lu B, Naylor E, Wolfe L, Zee PC. Aerobic exercise improves self-reported sleep and quality of life in older adults with insomnia. Sleep Med. 2010;11(9):934-940. doi:10.1016/j.sleep.2010.04.014