Wormholes on Earth

first_img Explore further ‘Electromagnetic Wormhole’ Possible with Invisibility Technology That is, any object within the tunnel is only visible to EM waves that enter at one of the tunnel’s ends. Conversely, any EM waves emitted by an object in the tunnel can only leave through one of the ends. However, Greenleaf says that it’s important to note that the shape of space has not actually been changed, as does happen for Einstein-Rosen wormholes in general relativity.This effect could have interesting applications. For example, a magnetic dipole (such as a bar magnet) placed near one of the ends would, at the other end, appear to approximate a magnetic monopole, a theoretical particle with only one magnetic pole, i.e. that has magnetic charge. True magnetic monopoles have never been discovered, and the work by Greenleaf and his colleagues does not claim otherwise.The scientists propose other possible applications, such as in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), where a wormhole device could be used to allow doctors to operate on a patient while simultaneously imaging the patient. Doctors could insert metal surgical tools into the tunnel area without disturbing the MRI machine’s magnetic field.Another example is an optical computer, where active components could be placed inside wormholes such as to not interact with each other and cause malfunctions.Metamaterials for invisibility, while still in the very early stages of development, are already being researched. Last year, scientists from Duke University created a device that renders a copper disc invisible to observation by microwaves.Citation: Allan Greenleaf, Yaroslav Kurylev, Matti Lassas, and Gunther Uhlmann “Electromagnetic Wormholes and Virtual Magnetic Monopoles from Metamaterials” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 183901 (2007) Copyright 2007 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. Citation: Wormholes on Earth? (2007, November 14) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2007-11-wormholes-earth.html According to a group of mathematicians, it may be possible to create devices with internal tunnels that are invisible to detection by electromagnetic waves—wormholes, in a sense. The group discusses the idea in a paper published in the October 29 online edition of Physical Review Letters. The scientists say that by custom designing the values of two parameters that describe electromagnetic (EM) materials, the electrical permittivity and magnetic permeability, around and inside a cylinder, a novel optical device could be produced. Essentially, most of the device would be invisible to detection by external EM radiation of a certain frequency, with only the ends of the cylinder being visible and accessible to the EM waves.“The chosen values for the permittivity and permeability would cause the coating to manipulate EM waves in a way that is not seen in nature,” explained University of Rochester mathematician Allan Greenleaf, one of the paper’s authors, to PhysOrg.com.Permittivity is a measure of a material’s readiness to become electrically polarized in response to an applied electric field (how well it “permits” the field). Permeability describes how magnetized a material becomes when a magnetic field is applied. Modern EM materials known as metamaterials allow theoretical designs, such as a wormhole, to be physically constructed, at least in principle.Greenleaf and his colleagues, Yaroslav Kurylev of University College in London, Matti Lassas of the Helsinki University of Technology, and Gunther Uhlmann of the University of Washington, use the word “wormhole” in more of a mathematical sense than physical. That is, the devices would act as wormholes from the viewpoint of Maxwell’s equations, the four fundamental equations that describe the relationship between electric fields, magnetic fields, electric charge, and electric current.For any other frequencies than those for which the permittivity and permeability were designed, the tunnel region would look roughly like a solid cylinder. But for the right frequencies, says Greenleaf, “the tunnel has the effect of changing the topology of space. The electromagnetic waves behave as though they are propagating through a space to which a handle has been attached, in the same way that ants crawling on the door of your refrigerator have two ways to get from one end of the handle to the other: by traveling over the handle or on the flat surface underneath.” This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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Scientists Image the Anatomy of a Molecule w Video

first_img Citation: Scientists Image the ‘Anatomy’ of a Molecule (w/ Video) (2009, August 28) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-08-scientists-image-anatomy-molecule-video.html (PhysOrg.com) — For the first time, IBM researchers in Zurich, Switzerland, have taken a 3D image of an individual molecule. Using an atomic force microscope, the researchers constructed a “force map” of pentacene, an organic molecule just 1.4 nanometers long. As the researchers explain, the technique is roughly analogous to how an x-ray machine images bones in the human body by looking through flesh. In this case, the scientists could look through the electron cloud and see the atomic backbone of the molecule. (Top) The force map image of pentacene, and (bottom) a textbook model. Twenty-two carbon atoms (gray balls) form five interconnected hexagonal rings. Fourteen hydrogen atoms (white balls) bind to the carbon atoms. Credit: IBM. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Researchers Create Microscope With 100 Million Times Finer Resolution Than Current MRIcenter_img Explore further To overcome these challenges, the IBM researchers, led by Leo Gross, modified the atomic force microscope technique. The team used a tip with a carbon monoxide molecule, held just 0.4 mm above the molecule, to balance competing forces that occur at this tiny range. While the attractive van der Waals force tries to pull the microscope tip and molecule together, a quantum mechanical effect based on the Pauli exclusion principle repels the electrons around the pentacene and those around the carbon monoxide molecule.By measuring the repulsive force of the tip at each point, the researchers could construct the force map of the molecule. To achieve significant detail, the researchers focused the microscope for 20 hours of data acquisition, operating in an ultrahigh vacuum at very low temperatures (5 Kelvin). As IBM stated in a press release, the results push the exploration of using molecules and atoms at the smallest scale and could greatly impact the field of nanotechnology.”Scanning probe techniques offer amazing potential for prototyping complex functional structures and for tailoring and studying their electronic and chemical properties on the atomic scale,” said IBM researcher Gerhard Meyer.For instance, the technique could open the door to more powerful computers whose components are built with precisely positioned atoms and molecules. Researchers could also gain insight into molecular-level activity, such as the actions of catalysts in reactions, and how molecular geometry changes when changing the charge of a molecule. “These breakthroughs will open new possibilities for investigating how charge transmits through molecules or molecular networks,” IBM stated. “Understanding the charge distribution at the atomic scale is essential for building smaller, faster and more energy-efficient computing components than today’s processors and memory devices.”More information: Leo Gross, Fabian Mohn, Nikolaj Moll, Peter Liljeroth, and Gerhard Meyer. “The Chemical Structure of a Molecule Resolved by Atomic Force Microscopy.” Science, 28 August 2009: Vol. 325. no. 5944, pp. 1110 – 1114. DOI: 10.1126/science.1176210.© 2009 PhysOrg.com To create an image, the atomic force microscope uses a sharp metal tip to measure the tiny forces between the tip and the pentacene molecule. Pentacene is an oblong molecule that consists of 22 carbon atoms and 14 hydrogen atoms, with the carbon atoms spaced just 0.14 nanometers apart. In the image, the five hexagonal shaped carbon rings, the carbon atoms, and the positions of the hydrogen atoms can be seen.Although researchers have previously imaged atoms, imaging molecules is more difficult due to their fragility. While techniques such as transmission electron microscopy can bombard materials with electrons in order to view atoms, the electron bombardment destroys the arrangement of atoms in molecules.last_img read more

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Ford concept EBike has smartphone built in

first_img(PhysOrg.com) — Ford Motor Company has been showing of its concept E-Bike at the Frankfort auto show. Though the company says it’s isn’t likely to actually sell the bike, it does offer some striking features. For one thing, it’s unisex; there’s no bar between the seat and handlebars to differentiate between boy or girl model. Also, they’ve hidden the stuff that makes it go. Though it does power itself, you’d never know looking at it. The motor is hidden away in the front axle works, and the battery is hidden in the frame. Thus, onlookers might be forgiven for confusing it with an ordinary bike as it also features pedals. But perhaps the thing that draws the most notice is the upfront display. It’s a Samsung Galaxy S2 Smartphone. And not only does it do all the things Smartphones are known for, but it serves as an interface between the rider and the inner workings of the bike. Explore further The company has also implemented custom developed magnetostriction sensor technology that it says it borrowed from Formula I race cars. Such technology allows for the conversion of magnetic energy into kinetic, and the other way around. The sensors read bearing information making the transition from pedaling to electric power seamless.The Concept E-Bike was developed in conjunction with cyber-Wear, the German company that runs Ford’s Lifestyle Collection (marketing products) such as sunglasses, watches, jackets, gloves etc. The idea it appears, is to use the E-Bike as a marketing tool to show off Ford’s ability to produce cutting edge technology. © 2011 PhysOrg.com Toyota comissions a Prius bikecenter_img On its site, Ford says that the display (Smartphone) can be used to allow the rider to choose from three different “support” modes: Economy, Comfort and Sport. It appears these modes allow the user to change the tightness of the suspension so as to provide the best ride for different types of environments, e.g. bumpy, off-road, street, etc. It can also be used as a message display to notify the rider of things going wrong with the bike, as a fuel gauge and as a means of displaying data such as speed, distance traveled, etc.The bike can go up to 16 mph, (25 kilometers/hour) and weighs just five and a half pounds (2.5 kilograms). It can go about 53 miles (85 kilometers) on average, which means riders could put the Smartphone’s GPS capabilities to good use as they glide along. Citation: Ford concept E-Bike has smartphone built in (2011, September 21) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-09-ford-concept-e-bike-smartphone-built.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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Volkswagen will debut XL1 hybrid at March auto show

first_img © 2013 Phys.org Volkswagen said the XL1 will be the most fuel-efficient production vehicle in the world. The car sets a record, as the 261 mpg figure has not been achieved by any other vehicle to date, according to the company. According to the company, the XL1 emits 21 g/km of CO2; the two-seat vehicle can cover up to 32 miles as a “zero-emissions vehicle” in an all-electric mode. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. There is no official word on pricing; analysts’ estimates run from 30,000 to 50,000 euros. As for production plans, Volkswagen intends to carry out a small production series; the XL1 is to be produced at the company’s Osnabrück plant in Germany. The process for the XL1 is described as “automotive handcrafting,” More information: www.vwvortex.com/news/volkswag … l1-gets-green-light/ Measurements for the XL1 are 153.1 inches long, 65.6 in wide, and 45.4 high. The XL1’s total weight is 1,753 pounds, and several auto sites consider this figure impressive given the added weight of a battery pack and electric motor. The car has a futurist design; features include enclosed rear wheels, butterfly doors, and camera-based rearview mirrors integrated into the door panels. Volkswagen used special lightweight material for the vehicle’s construction, producing parts of the XL1 in light but strong carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP). Power for the XL1 is provided by a system with details as follows: A two-cylinder TDI engine (35 kW / 48 PS), E-motor (20 kW / 27 PS), 7-speed dual clutch gearbox (DSG) and lithium-ion battery, The car has a top speed of 99 mph. In announcing the XL1, Volkswagen said that “When the new millennium was ushered in, Prof. Dr. Ferdinand Piëch, who is today Chairman of the Supervisory Board of Volkswagen AG, formulated the visionary goal of bringing to market a production car that was practical in everyday use with fuel consumption of one liter per 100 km. In the two-seat XL1, this vision has become reality.” Explore further (Phys.org)—Volkswagen will debut its XL1 two-seater, plug-in hybrid at the Geneva Auto Show in March. Publicity and blog previews are pointing to the car’s considerable design and technical features. The company views its XL1 as a significant standout. Volkswagen is emphasizing that the car represents a first in fuel economy. The car’s 261 miles per gallon combined fuel consumption is touted as a real achievement. Volkswagen’s XL1 said to be world’s most economical car Citation: Volkswagen will debut XL1 hybrid at March auto show (2013, February 24) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-02-volkswagen-debut-xl1-hybrid-auto.htmllast_img read more

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Fractal wire patterns enhance stretchability of electronic devices

first_img The researchers, Jonathan A. Fan, et al., from institutions in the US, China, Korea, and Singapore, have published a paper on the benefits of fractal wire patterns for stretchable electronics in a recent issue of Nature Communications.In general, a main challenge in designing stretchable electronics is maintaining good electronic functionality while enabling stretching of up to twice the normal device size. Some of the most successful approaches to achieving both of these goals involve combining two separate components: a hard component that provides high conductivity and a soft component that provides mechanical stretchability. The dual-component nature of these devices raises the question of how hard and soft materials can be ideally integrated.The results of the new study show that fractal patterns offer a promising approach to hard-soft materials integration, and suggest that fractal patterns can influence the mechanical properties of 2D materials. In the new devices, the hard metal wires are engineered into fractal designs and then bonded to soft elastomers.”We have established an approach, with general utility, for configuring hard materials with soft ones, in ways that have immediate relevance in all areas of stretchable electronics,” coauthor John Rogers, Professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, told Phys.org. “The resulting properties also provide advanced capabilities in stretchable/conformal devices and sensors, not only electronic, but photonic, optoelectronic and photovoltaic as well.” (Phys.org) —Fractals—patterns defined by their scale-invariance that makes them look the same on large scales as they do on small scales—are found in nature everywhere from snowflakes to broccoli to the beating of the heart. In a new study, researchers have demonstrated that metal wires patterned in various fractal motifs, when integrated into elastic materials, enable highly stretchable electronic devices. The fractal wire patterns could lead to a variety of new devices, such as biomedical sensors that can be attached to the skin and that have unique properties such as invisibility under magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Explore further Citation: Fractal wire patterns enhance stretchability of electronic devices (2014, February 18) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-02-fractal-wire-patterns-stretchability-electronic.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. This control provided by fractal patterns could allow researchers to tailor stretchable electronics devices for different applications, depending on the type of stretching required. One potential application is “epidermal electronics,” or skin-mounted sensors and actuators. A common example is electrodes, which measure electrophysiological processes in the brain, heart and muscle. To optimize the level of connectivity, the electrodes must conform to the skin, which has a stretchability of up to 20%. The researchers found that electrodes made with the Greek cross fractal pattern offer a high connectivity, stretchability, and robustness that enables them to compare favorably to conventional gel-based electrodes.Fractal patterns could also have applications for radio-frequency devices, which could enable electrodes that are compatible with MRI scans. The researchers performed MRI experiments comparing electrodes made from three types of fractal patterns, two variants of serpentine (non-fractal) patterns, a pattern consisting of superimposed vertical and horizontal lines, and no pattern. While the serpentine patterns and unpatterned samples contained shadows that distorted the images, the fractal samples showed no shadows or distortion. The researchers attribute this difference to the highly interconnected closed loops of metal in the serpentine patterns; in contrast, the fractals do not contain closed loops, so they do not couple to RF radiation and are therefore invisible under MRI. The results suggest that fractal patterns offer a promising route to future MRI-compatible skin-mounted or implanted electrodes and other electronic devices.In the future, the researchers plan to investigate further applications of fractals in electronics.”We are now exploiting these same ideas to move from electrodes and test structures of silicon, to active materials for stretchable LEDs and solar cells, with a next goal of producing full functional systems in these types of layouts,” Rogers said. (a) Fractal-inspired patterns for hard-soft materials integration, with (b) FEM images and (c) MicroXCT images. Credit: Fan, et al. ©2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited (Top) Image of metal wires with the Peano fractal pattern, with an overall geometry that spells out the characters in ‘ILLINOIS’, mounted on skin. Optical (lower left) and scanning electron (lower right) microscopy images of Peano-based wires on skin and a skin-replica (colorized metal wires), respectively, show how the wires conform to the substrate. Credit: Fan, et al. ©2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited More information: Jonathan A. Fan. “Fractal design concepts for stretchable electronics.” Nature Communications. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms4266 Journal information: Nature Communications Fractal plumage indicates bird fitness In their experiments, the researchers investigated several different fractal patterns, including Peano, Greek cross, Vicsek, and others. They found that these fractal patterns offer key advantages over other patterns, such as periodic loops and serpentine shapes investigated in previous studies. With the Peano pattern, for example, the researchers showed that modifying the orientation of the pattern enhances the material’s elastic strain in one or more selected directions, and allows the pattern to support different types of deformations. Previously explored wire patterns do not offer the ability to control the strain and deformation in these ways. © 2014 Phys.org. All rights reserved.last_img read more

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Global roadmap for better understanding space weather released

first_img Explore further “Ongoing solar missions have given us guidance on optimal solar surface observations to support modeling so that improved estimates on the CME magnetic structure and energy content, as well as the propagation in the heliosphere can be achieved,” the researchers wrote in the report.The main goal is to obtain forecasts more than 12 hours ahead of the magnetic structure of incoming CMEs and their impact in geospace to improve alerts for geomagnetic disturbances.According to the report authors, ground- and space-based instrumentation should be increased to complement satellite data of the magnetospheric and ionospheric variability to cover gaps.The roadmap emphasizes the need for coordinated and complementary actions to better shield society from the effects of extreme solar activity. The scientists note that space weather is a real and permanent hazard to our civilizations that needs to be addressed by combining scientific research with engineering ingenuity. The problem should be perceived as still escalating, having in mind that with advancements in technology, society becomes more vulnerable to solar events.Conclusions from the report promise more accurate space weather forecasting and offer hope of future advancements in the understanding of the solar phenomena. The scientists predict that within the span of the next five to 10 years, we will see major progress regarding our comprehension of these space events and our ability to react to the sun’s violent lifecycle.The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), established in 1958, is an interdisciplinary scientific body concerned with progress on an international scale of all kinds of scientific investigations carried out with space vehicles, rockets and balloons.The International Living With a Star (ILWS), established in 2002, is an international organization dedicated to the advancement of space weather science missions and research. Nation’s first operational satellite in deep space reaches final orbit (c) 2015 Phys.org The authors of the plan strongly emphasize that battling the effects of extreme solar activity is an international challenge. Changes in the sun’s magnetic field affect the whole planet, thus worldwide observations and substantial resources are needed to address the problem.Space weather impacts numerous aspects of our lives, including Earth’s climate, satellites, navigation systems, radio communications, and power grid. Severe space storms could result in perturbations in the electric power system and could cause loss of satellites. Therefore, extreme solar events could be catastrophic with severe consequences for millions of people.”Mitigating against the impacts of space weather can be improved by designing less susceptible, more resilient technologies, combined with better environmental knowledge and more reliable forecasts,” the report reads. “This roadmap outlines how we can achieve deeper understanding and better forecasts, recognizing that the expectations for space weather information differ between societal sectors, and that capabilities to observe or model space weather phenomena depend on available and anticipated technologies.”The scientists behind the roadmap recommend the extensive use of current spacecraft in service, which are designed to study the sun’s activity. The fleet of active space observatories includes NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Japanese Hinode, providing solar magnetic maps. Solar coronagraphy acquired by NASA/ESA SOHO spacecraft and NASA’s STEREO probes, is also essential for forecast purposes. Moreover, measurements of the solar-wind plasma and magnetic field delivered by NASA’s Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite and its successor, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) DSCOVR probe will bring crucial data as well.These observations made by numerous scientific spacecraft enable estimation of arrival times of the various solar events. For example, huge explosions of magnetic field and plasma from the sun’s corona, known as coronal mass ejections (CMEs), can reach Earth in as little as 14 to 17 hours. When CMEs impact the Earth’s magnetosphere, they are responsible for geomagnetic storms and enhanced aurorae. In order to predict the strength of the resulting geomagnetic storm, estimates of the magnetic field strength and direction are important. At the present time, the magnetic field cannot be determined until it is measured as the CME passes over a monitoring satellite. Citation: Global roadmap for better understanding space weather released (2015, July 6) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-07-global-roadmap-space-weather.htmlcenter_img More information: “Understanding space weather to shield society: A global road map for 2015–2025 commissioned by COSPAR and ILWS,” Advances in Space Research, Volume 55, Issue 12, 15 June 2015, Pages 2745-2807, ISSN 0273-1177, dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2015.03.023 (Phys.org)—The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the International Living With a Star (ILWS) organization have released a global roadmap for 2015-2025 focusing on better understanding how the phenomena of space weather affect our daily activities on Earth. The strategic plan calls for a coordinated international approach to study the violent solar activity and showcases the research areas that need more attention in order to fully protect our planet from the effects of space weather. The roadmap was published on June 15 in the journal Advances in Space Research. Overview of the primary impacts and their societal sectors of space weather. The red shading in the background indicates the priority needs for the user communities behind each of the impacts, differentiated by time scale for forecast or for archival information as shown on the left. Text boxes identify the primary needed observations, archival measurements, and models to complete the impact chain, differentiated (using color, see legend) by solar, heliospheric, and geospace domains. Credit: Advances in Space Research, Volume 55, Issue 12, 15 June 2015, Pages 2745-2807, ISSN 0273-1177, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2015.03.023 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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Study provides surprisingly complex portrait of ancient trade networks

first_img Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further More information: Compositional data supports decentralized model of production and circulation of artifacts in the pre-Columbian south-central Andes. PNAS 2017 114 (20) E3917-E3926; published ahead of print May 1, 2017, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1610494114AbstractThe circulation and exchange of goods and resources at various scales have long been considered central to the understanding of complex societies, and the Andes have provided a fertile ground for investigating this process. However, long-standing archaeological emphasis on typological analysis, although helpful to hypothesize the direction of contacts, has left important aspects of ancient exchange open to speculation. To improve understanding of ancient exchange practices and their potential role in structuring alliances, we examine material exchanges in northwest Argentina (part of the south-central Andes) during 400 BC to AD 1000 (part of the regional Formative Period), with a multianalytical approach (petrography, instrumental neutron activation analysis, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) to artifacts previously studied separately. We assess the standard centralized model of interaction vs. a decentralized model through the largest provenance database available to date in the region. The results show: (i) intervalley heterogeneity of clays and fabrics for ordinary wares; (ii) intervalley homogeneity of clays and fabrics for a wide range of decorated wares (e.g., painted Ciénaga); (iii) selective circulation of two distinct polychrome wares (Vaquerías and Condorhuasi); (iv) generalized access to obsidian from one major source and various minor sources; and (v) selective circulation of volcanic rock tools from a single source. These trends reflect the multiple and conflicting demands experienced by people in small-scale societies, which may be difficult to capitalize by aspiring elites. The study undermines centralized narratives of exchange for this period, offering a new platform for understanding ancient exchange based on actual material transfers, both in the Andes and beyond. The study challenges existing centralized network models of interaction in favor of a decentralized network structure. The researchers built the largest provenance database ever constructed for the region, taking a multianalytical approach that considered lithic sources, pottery analysis, and comparisons of clays and fabrics. These materials and artifacts had previously only been studied separately. The wide-ranging collection of data resulted in a complex, sprawling portrait of northwest Argentina during the Formative Period.This era was characterized by the slow development of sedentary societies with subsistence and crafting technologies. In older studies, researchers reconstructed regional networks based on typological similarities between materials and artifacts. The new study attempts to investigate interactions between both local and regional networks in the Andes during this period by comparing the manufacture and sources of materials, as opposed only to looking at styles.For instance, an examination of obsidian artifacts demonstrated that they shared a common source. But the differences between the cultural styles and assemblages demonstrated that many groups from different communities and cultures shared access to the same source. This allowed the researchers to create a regional network representing the movement and propagation of this source of rock.The petrography analysis of ceramics sources revealed a variety of technical production modes. The researchers found distinct chemical fingerprints for ceramic artifacts found in specific valleys and areas. “This pattern strongly suggests that there was a set of middle-range distance connections involving not only the circulation of raw materials and artifacts, but also the transmission of skills and concepts of manufacture and design that were not exclusionary,” the authors note.Notably, the study did not find characteristic artifacts from the Ambato Valley—these are distinctive gray-black wares found in past archaeological excavations that did not seem to spread among the regions encompassed by the current study. This calls into question the presumed centrality of the Ambato Valley as a node within the regional trade network. “Together with the observed low frequency of painted Aguado varieties in our core study area, the results of the geochemical analysis support a reconsideration of the purported central role of this valley,” the researchers write.The study concludes that the area supported many circulation networks involving multiple means of transport, including the presumed use of llamas. Additionally, local networks of different types were incorporated into larger regional networks that best served the needs of communities during that period–needs that were not necessarily dictated by either socio-political considerations or the desires of cultural elites. “Focusing on close intercommunity links rooted on common craft practices rather than solely on stylistic reconstructions is a more fruitful avenue to explore the ancient circulation of goods, skills, and people without assuming the capacity of early elites to manipulate and capitalize on such networks,” the authors conclude. © 2017 Phys.orgcenter_img (Phys.org)—The study of ancient civilizations, particularly those that did not leave extensive writing in the archaeological record, is reliant on the evidence of other kinds of material artifacts. And one of the keys to understanding large, complex societies is mapping the circulation of such artifacts. An international research collaborative recently published a study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on the production and circulation of artifacts in the south-central Andes during 400 BC to 1000 AD. Albania stops smugglers of 230 ancient Apollonia artifacts Distribution routes for obsidian sources, decorated MG2 and MG7 pottery wares, Vaquerías and Condorhuasi wares, and type 1 vulcanite. Credit: (c) PNAS 2017 114 (20) E3917-E3926; published ahead of print May 1, 2017, doi:10.1073/pnas.1610494114 Citation: Study provides surprisingly complex portrait of ancient trade networks (2017, May 23) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-05-surprisingly-complex-portrait-ancient-networks.htmllast_img read more

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New type of light interaction with atoms allows for manipulating cloud shape

first_img Citation: New type of light interaction with atoms allows for manipulating cloud shape (2017, October 24) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-10-interaction-atoms-cloud.html More information: Noam Matzliah et al. Observation of Optomechanical Strain in a Cold Atomic Cloud, Physical Review Letters (2017). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.163201 Up until now, scientists have used two main techniques to manipulate atoms with light. The first involves firing a laser at a single atom to change its momentum. The other has been to cause an atom to “feel” an electric field force associated with a beam of light. Now, researchers have developed a third technique—one that involves firing a laser at an atom cloud.The experiments involved creating a spherical cloud consisting of nothing but millions of cold rubidium-87 atoms. The researchers then fired a pulse of infrared light at the cloud (the frequency was described as “far detuned” from rubidium-87 transitions) and found the cloud responded by behaving similarly to a lens, deflecting the light and causing the cloud to become longer and thinner—the light beam essentially squished the sphere into a new shape. The researchers note that the parameters of the beam they fired at the cloud had been idealized to reduce the force between the light’s electric field and the individual rubidium atoms. The researchers suggest the change in cloud shape resulted from the collective effect of the laser acting on all of the atoms in the cloud—conservation of momentum caused the atoms to respond to a force pushing against them in a direction opposite the deflection. The team has invented a term to describe the overall effect: electrostriction. They note that they ran their experiments on booth Bose-Einstein condensates and clouds at higher temperatures.Because it is a global optical force, the researchers note, it could be easily modified to allow for easy tuning of interactions with lasers—an improvement over the current cumbersome method. They suggest their technique might prove useful in future cold atom experiments because it allows inducing interparticle interactions that can be easily turned. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. A team of researchers at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel has found a new way to manipulate atoms using light. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the new technique and possible uses for it. Credit: Physical Review Letters (2017). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.163201center_img Proposed method to cause an atom to emit the same light as another atom Journal information: Physical Review Letters © 2017 Phys.org Explore furtherlast_img read more

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Girls Are More Engaged When Theyre Doing Science Rather Than Being Scientists

first_imgAsking young girls to “do science” leads them to show greater persistence in science activities than does asking them to “be scientists,” researchers at New York University and Princeton University find. The study results are published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science. Rhodes and her coauthors, who include Princeton’s Sarah-Jane Leslie, note that the messaging children often receive through television shows centers on identity rather than action when it comes to science. Additional coauthors on the work include Kathryn Yee, a researcher in NYU’s Department of Psychology at the time of the study, and Katya Saunders, a postdoctoral researcher in NYU’s Department of Psychology. “Describing science as actions, by saying ‘let’s do science,’ leads to more science engagement than does describing science in terms of identities, by asking them to ‘be scientists,’” explains Marjorie Rhodes, an associate professor in NYU’s Department of Psychology and the senior author of the study. These findings suggest that efforts encouraging girls to enter science—a field in which they are underrepresented—might benefit from focusing on describing the activity of doing science rather than on encouraging children to adopt scientist identities, at least in early childhood. “The roots of gender disparities in science achievement take hold in early childhood,” Rhodes observes. “This research identifies an element of children’s environments that could be targeted to reduce early gender differences in science behavior among young children.” This research was supported, in part, by a grant from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development of the National Institutes of Health (R01HD087672). Notably, girls who were initially asked to “do science” showed more persistence on the subsequent science game than did girls who had been asked to “be scientists.”center_img “These effects particularly hold for children who are the target of stereotypes suggesting that they might not be the kind of person who succeeds in science—in this case, girls,” she adds. Children were then asked to complete a new science game designed to illustrate the scientific method. Persistence was measured by how long they continued to play this game. By contrast, the effects of language for boys were more variable. For instance, one of their studies found that boys younger than 5 years old showed greater persistence when language was action-oriented while those older than 5 revealed higher levels of persistence when language was identity-oriented. In the newly published Psychological Science work, the researchers conducted four studies with children aged 4 to 9 years old. Here, the children received an introduction to science that described science as an identity (“Let’s be scientists! Scientists explore the world and discover new things!”) or as action (“Let’s do science! Doing science means exploring the world and discovering new things!”). Overall, these findings suggest that identity-focused language can undermine persistence in some children as they acquire new skills, particularly when cultural stereotypes lead children to question if they hold the relevant identity.  All data, materials, and analytic code are publicly available via the Open Science Framework. This article has received the badges for Open Data and Open Materials.last_img read more

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Jaitley promises additional capital for PSU banks

first_imgFinance Minister Arun Jaitley on Friday promised more capital infusion into public sector banks, saying there’s “merit” in their demand for more funds over and above what was provided in the Budget. “Banks have made a strong case for additional capital…And over the next few months, this is something the government is going to seriously look at,” Jaitley said after meeting heads of PSU banks here.“…I do believe it’s a case which has merit (attention).” The government has earmarked Rs 7,940 crore in the Budget for recapitalisation of PSU banks for the current fiscal. The statement assumes significance as RBI Deputy Governor S S Mundra had yesterday said the Budget amount marked for recapitalisation of PSU banks is not adequate and RBI has asked the Finance Ministry to raise the quantum of assistance in view of mounting bad loans and support growth. On additional quantum to be infused, Jaitley said “it’s only after discussions within the government and looking at our own abilities on the matter that your question can be answered”. Last fiscal, the government infused Rs 6,990 crore in nine public sector banks based on their performance. Also Read – I-T issues 17-point checklist to trace unaccounted DeMO cashWhen asked why banks are not opting for the market route to raise capital, the Minister said banks do so taking into account the market conditions and stability. “They (banks) are free to take decision (on tapping the market) at an opportune time,” he added. On bad loans, Jaitley said although NPAs (non-performing assets) came down in the fourth quarter, it’ll take a while before a comfort level is reached.“In the quarter ended March 2015, NPAs had come down from 5.64 per cent to 5.2 per cent. One quarter does not indicate a pattern. So, I would wait for some more time before realising what the pattern is,” he said. Banks’ assessment is that it will take them 2-3 quarters “to reach a somewhat greater comfort level”, he said, adding that they themselves are going to make an effort to reduce NPAs. “We did ask each of the banks that have higher NPA levels to explain the reasons and those groups where defaults were higher,” he said. On stalled projects, the Finance Minister said there is a lot of concern in this regard and many have started. “Therefore, we decided that even though in Cabinet Secretariat an effort is being made, the Prime Minister himself has taken a series of meetings. The DFS Secretary purely from the banking point of view, will prepare a list of those projects which are stalled on account of reasons of finance,” Jaitley said. Also Read – Lanka launches ambitious tourism programme to woo Indian tourists‘Loans to small businesses may double to `Rs 1 trillion’ The loans to small business sector may double to Rs one lakh crore in the current fiscal, Finance Minister Arun Jaitley said on Friday. He also expressed concern over low participation of the private banks in the government-promoted schemes, especially the recently launched social security programmes.“Since the small and micro business sector has diverse needs, credit products should be customised to suit their requirements so that the unfunded are effectively funded,” Jaitley said during his meeting with PSU Bank heads here.The Minister said that 2015-16 should see a doubling of the loans to the small business sector from Rs 50,000 crore (during 2014-15) to Rs one lakh crore in the current fiscal.last_img read more

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WBCS cadre sees reshuffle

first_imgKolkata: In a reshuffle in the WBCS (Executive) cadre, 18 SDOs have been changed.SDOs of Barasat, Suri, Bankura (Sadar), Darjeeling (Sadar), Barrackpore, Egra, Mekhliganj, Mathabhanga, Kakdwip, Raiganj, Ranaghat, Tufanganj, Cooch Behar (Sadar), Alipore, Howrah (Sadar), Jhalda, Purulia (Sadar) and Alipurduar were changed.Avik Chatterjee, who was SDO Darjeeling (Sadar), has become the Deputy Secretary of Self Help Groups and Self Employment department. Thendhup Namgyal Sherpa has become the Deputy Director of Tourism Directorate. He was SDO Raiganj. Reshma Banerjee, who was SDO Howrah (Sadar), has been posted as advisor of WBIDC. Arundhuti De has become the Secretary of Alipurduar Zilla Parishad. Santi Kumar Batabyal, who was posted as Deputy Secretary of the Land and Land Reforms department, has become the Deputy Secretary of the Judicial department.last_img read more

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Indian startups to get a rocket launch to UK

first_imgBritish High Commissioner to India, Sir Dominic Asquith, recently launched the 2017-18 TECH Rocketship Awards to an audience of entrepreneurs, venture capitalists, start-ups, and a judging panel including Saurabh Srivastava and Mohandas Pai.The 4th edition of TECH Rocketship Awards, targeting India’s top tech entrepreneurs and scale-up businesses is offering 7 prize packages to the UK. Lucky winners will receive tailored packages in the UK to help them achieve their ambitions of growth with a fully paid-for business development and partnership programme. The awards, an initiative by the UK’s Department for International Trade (DIT) in India, have been running for three years and have seen endorsement from The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, British Prime Minister Theresa May and some of biggest names in Indian business. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfBritish high Commissioner to India, Sir Dominic Asquith KCMG said, “The UK’s position as a home-from-home for Indian tech companies is as strong as ever. Nearly a third of all Indian investment into the UK is in tech and telecommunications and we are fully-committed to supporting Prime Minister Narendra Modi in his vision for ‘Startup India’. The UK is open for business and through TECH Rocketship Awards we are looking to help the next batch of leading young Indian entrepreneurs scale-up and go global via the UK. The Awards provide an excellent platform for Indian SMEs to grow their business overseas by using the UK as a springboard.” Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveThis year’s six award categories – Fin-tech, Med-tech, Internet of Things, Cloud Computing and Data Analytics, Cyber Security and Artificial Intelligence – reflect some of the areas of greatest potential in terms of opportunity and demand in the UK and India. These are the UK’s fastest growing tech sectors and are aligned with the UK Government’s technology investment priorities. This year the awards will be judged by significant Indian entrepreneurs and thought-leaders like Indian Angel Network(IAN)’s founder Saurabh Srivastava, Kiran Muzamdar Shaw, Digital India Foundation Head Arvind Gupta, NASSCOM Chairman Raman Roy, Fin-tech entrepreneur Alok Vajpeyi, Shradha Sharma founder of YourStory along with Investors like IDG Ventures and SIDBI Ventures. Saurabh Srivastava Founder IAN said, “This platform not only provides an opportunity for Indian entrepreneurs to network and identify trade opportunities, but also gives UK based investors an access to the pool of India’s most innovative businesses.”The competition winners’ trip to the UK will include opportunities to pitch to UK Venture Capitalits, a programme at London Tech Week, curated partnerships with established UK companies like Harper Adams University and Sensor City and exposure to the UK’s thriving tech ecosystem, financial services and R&D opportunities. They will also get a chance to spend quality time with companies across the UK.Applications are open to Indian tech entrepreneurs under 40 in India who have been operating a company created from the year 2000 onwards. The competition is now open and will close on Midnight of December 9, 2017.last_img read more

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Young artists go green at FDDIs contest

first_imgWith an aim to reveal the creative potential of young students, Footwear Design and Development Institute (FDDI), on Friday organised an Inter School T-shirt Painting Competition at its Noida Campus. As the entire world is reeling under pollution, FDDI kept the theme of the competition ‘Go Green’ to encourage young participants pull their heart and soul in painting. More than 250 students from 17 schools participated in the competition. Young artists enthusiastically weaved their imagination with the strokes of brush. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfPaintings were judged by faculty members of FDDI and anchor Vibhuti Pathania managed the event. Aditya Mittal from Khaitan Public School bagged the first position, Anushka Datta from Mayoor School and Harman Kaur from Guruharkishan School secured second and third position respectively. Adarsh Kumar Executive Director, FDDI gave away the prizes and motivated the students.FDDI is a premier academic and training institution dedicated to the development and growth of the footwear, leather products, retail and fashion merchandise and fashion design sectors. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveThe institute plays a key role in imparting education, facilitating the Indian industry by bridging the skill gap in the areas of footwear, leather accessory and life style products, and because of its continuous contribution towards nation building, FDDI has been awarded the status of “Institute of National Importance” in the year 2017.FDDI has also showcased the thematic and other creations by students of all departments at the 37th India International Trade Fair, Pragati Maidan, New Delhi. The stall is set up at Haryana Pavilion. FDDI was established in 1986, under the aegis of Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India with an objective to develop Human Resources within the country by imparting appropriate knowledge and skills to promote the rapid growth of footwear and allied industry in the country. It has Pan India Presence with 12 state-of art campuses spread across the country.FDDI has a strong alumni base and strong industry linkage. Almost all the leading industries of the country are associated with the Institute and have a tangible participation in academic matters.last_img read more

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WBBSE announces schedule of Madhyamik

first_imgKolkata: The West Bengal Board of Secondary Education (WBBSE) on Thursday announced the schedule of Madhyamik Examination 2020. The examination will start from February 18 and end on February 27. The WBBSE usually announces the schedule of the examination for the next year while publishing the results for the examination. But this year, WBBSE president Kalyanmoy Ganguly had said that the schedule of 2020 examination would be announced later. A notification announcing the examination schedule was released on the website of the Madhyamik Board. The dates for Physical Education, Social Service and Work Education will be announced later.last_img read more

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From Prostitute to Pirate How a Brothel Owner Commanded 80000

first_imgAt the beginning of the 19th century, in Qing Dynasty China, a woman rose through the ranks of a pirate fleet which looted and pillaged the Far East coast from the city of Canton to present-day Vietnam for decades. Although sporting a number of names during her life, she became best known as Ching Shih, commandress of the Red Fleet.Born as Shi Yang in the province of Guangdong, she entered the criminal underworld at an early age as a prostitute. Eventually, she became a madam in a Cantonese floating brothel and adopted an alias Shi Xianggu.Ching Shih depicted in History of the Pirates of all Nations.However, her role in the brothel wasn’t just handling the clients. It included many intrigues and dealing valuable information. Her wit combined with her beauty attracted a powerful and influential pirate lord called Cheng Yi, with whom she formed a marriage in 1801, enabling her to control over 50 percent of his fleet and loot. This was concluded in a formal agreement serving as a guarantee. Her husband commanded around 300 ships with more than 20,000 pirates, all gathered around the banner of the so-called Red Fleet.Cheng himself was a man aware of the risks which came with the pirate enterprise, so apart from making sure his wife was his trusty right hand, he also adopted a young fisherman turned pirate called Cheung Po Tsai as his rightful male heir.The Cheng family of the Pirates on the China Sea genealogy. Photo by Shangkuanlc CC BY-SA 4.0As if by providence, Cheng soon suffered a violent death. It is believed that he was murdered in Vietnam and that he was either 39 or 42 years of age at the time of his death.His wife finally got the name under which she ruled the seas ― Ching Shih ― “The Widow of Cheng.”In the meantime, weeks after her husband’s death, Ching and her then-stepson, Cheung Po Tsai, who was second-in-command, engaged in a love affair, which further strengthened the ties between the common pirates and the leadership of the Red Fleet.Ching grew strong within the pirate community, earning loyalty and respect among the outlaws. But in order to achieve her status, she implemented a strict code of conduct which enabled her to forge a respectable naval force manned by disciplined and determined sailors.Skull-and-crossbones pirate flag.The code included rules which strengthened the chain of command, punishing any form of violation or disobeying of orders with death. It also ensured that the villagers who supplied the pirates were protected as it was strictly forbidden to steal from them or hurt them in any way.This rule helped in forming a strong network of trustworthy commonfolk who refused to provide the authorities with any information on the pirates. Of course, the Qing Dynasty which ruled China at the time did everything possible to put an end to her reign over the China Sea ― but with no success.10 Bizarre Pirate traditions most people don’t know aboutAs for the loot itself, it was to be inspected by a group. It was then registered, with a part of it always going to a public fund intended to cover the expenses and repair damage. Twenty percent was given to the pirate who claimed the loot, while actual money always went to the squadron commander.A special rule was enforced regarding women who were captured. Rape was punishable by death, while even consensual sex was prohibited as it meant death for both parties. However, accounts have been reported in which pirates were allowed to wed certain female captives.Ching grew strong within the pirate community, earning loyalty and respect among the outlaws.Ching Shih’s fleet swelled in numbers, as she at one point reportedly commanded a force 80,000-strong. This number was cited by Richard Glasspoole, an officer aboard a British ship The Marquis of Ely, and an employee of the East India Company, who spent several months in captivity with the Red Fleet in 1809. He also estimated that Ching’s fleet numbered as much as 1,000 large junks and more than 800 smaller junks and rowboats.She commanded over 300 junks manned by 20,000 to 40,000 pirates—men, women, and even children.Whether these numbers are exaggerated remains a subject of debate, but what is known is that the Red Fleet had made powerful enemies including the British and Portuguese Navies ― two of the most modern and respectable fleets of the time.Ching Shih went undefeated for a number of years and amassed a huge fortune, but her partner’s arrogance ultimately brought about their downfall. In September 1809, Cheung Po decided to confront the Portuguese flotilla stationed at their city-colony of Macao by challenging them to a duel.What went down in history as the Battle of the Tiger’s Mouth took place as a series of naval confrontations that marked the demise of a once powerful Red Fleet. Starting from September 1809, the fighting continued for several months, finally ending in January 1810.Battle of the Tiger’s Mouth/Naval combats between the Portuguese and the Chinese pirate fleet in the Pearl River Delta.After suffering several defeats and the defection of his vassals, Cheung Po together with Ching decided to accept the terms of surrender within the Qing amnesty which was enforced as a counter-pirate measure.This was the official retirement of Ching Shih, who continued her life by marrying her former stepson with whom she lived until his death in 1822. After Cheung’s untimely death at sea, she moved back to her hometown of Canton, where she opened a brothel and gambling house.Read another story from us: The Flying Dutchman – The ghostly ship doomed to sail the Seven Seas foreverChing Shih successfully retired from piracy and spent the rest of her life peacefully, surrounded by family. She died in 1844, aged 69, leaving behind her a lasting legacy inspiring stories, books and even movies like the Pirates of the Caribbean, which features her as a character among the pirate lords.Nikola Budanovic is a freelance journalist who has worked for various media outlets such as Vice, War History Online, The Vintage News, and Taste of Cinema. His main areas of interest are history, particularly military history, literature and film.last_img read more

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The Worlds Oldest Continuously Running Hotel

first_imgThe Nishiyama Onsen Keiunkan hot spring hotel in Japan dates from the year 705, and has been in continuous operation ever since. It claims to be the world’s oldest hotel, and one of the most ancient businesses still running. According to JapanVisitor, we need to delve into the Onsen hot spring culture first, to understand how the spa kept going in the mountainous heart of Japan’s main island. Remarkably, it still belongs to the same family after 52 generations.Onsen illustration from 1811. Photo by Chris 73 /CC BY-SA 3.0An Onsen is a thermal hot spring with water warmed by rocks heated by our planet’s fiery heart. Japan has literally thousands of these springs. In ancient times, warriors came to them to relax after battle, and thank their gods for their survival.Onsens therefore have a strong bond with Japanese history and religion. This may be one of the reasons why Nishiyama Onsen Keiunkan is still going after 1,300 years, but why this one particularly.Keiunkan in Nagahama, Photo by 663highland. CC BY-SA 3.0According to National Geographic, the world’s longest running hotel is on one of the ancient routes leading to Mount Fuji. The cone-shaped mountain is an icon of Japanese culture.The Shinto faith regards Mount Fuji as “one of the gods born when the earth was chaotic.” It became a place of pilgrimage for emperors, while ancient samurai used the slopes for battle training.Mt. Fuji, Japan.Wealthy Japanese noblemen flocked to the Nishiyama Onsen Keiunkan hot spring after Fujiwara Mahito began offering lodgings in 705 AD. Since then, it has hosted important guests including fierce samurai warriors and all-powerful emperors. The building has been knocked down and replaced many times but the location and the views remain the same.Keiunkan in Nagahama. Photo by 663highland CC By SA 3.0The family insists the founder Fujiwara Mahito was the son of a personal aide to Emperor Tenji in the seventh century. Emperor Tenji was a powerful warrior, but also a famous poet renowned for writing the first legal code.Perhaps his generosity towards his aid’s son was the springboard that enabled a young man to offer lodgings in such a remote place.6 Mysterious Islands From Around The WorldJapanese hot springs found favor with soldiers to ease aching muscles after military exercises and battles. They must have seemed miraculous, especially on cold winter nights when their only other source of warmth was a flickering campfire.Photo by Chris 73 / CC BY-SA 3.0The hotel website claims: “The hot spring has flowed freely without interruption since then, and is loved by many townsfolk, military commanders and cultured peoples as a secluded place deep in the mountains of the Kai region.” The first shōgun of the Tokugawa shogunate government, Tokugawa Ieyasu, visited it twice, where after the shogunate ruled Japan from 1600 to 1868.Nishiyama Onsen Keiunkan. Photo by 663highland CC By SA 3.0Such powerful alliances must have kept Nishiyama Onsen Keiunkan well provided with wealthy guests, as it continued to develop into the luxury hotel with distinctly modern prices standing on the site today.There are now four outdoor baths and two indoor ones, fed by four natural hot springs. The waters are still rich in sodium, calcium nitrate and chloride sourced from Earth’s fiery magma.Hōshi Ryokan, founded in 718, was previously thought to be the oldest operating hotel in the world. Photo by Namazu-tron CC BY-SA 3.0Guests sleep on mats in rooms spacious for the lack of furniture. They dine on a “minimalist banquet” of seasonal foods from the mountains and rivers in season. If you visit, leave your shoes at the entrance and be willing to adapt to the etiquette of the onsen.Indoor onsen. Photo by MD242~commonswiki CC BY-SA 3.0Rinse yourself off first in a shower while sitting on a stool or tub before entering the water. You may cover yourself with a small towel while walking to the baths. Ask about etiquette at the hotel reception.Read another story from us: Oldest U.S. Marine Corps Barracks now a Historical LandmarkMany Japanese visitors prefer silence as they commune with the spirits of the past. Listen carefully, you may hear the voices of samurai warriors celebrating a glorious victory over their foes.last_img read more

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After Official Inquest Roman Coins Found in Britain Determined to be Treasure

first_imgIn recent decades, advances in technology and lowering costs have allowed more and more people to develop a new hobby – metal detecting. Viking and pre-Viking age swords, ancient and medieval coins and treasure hoards, as well as more modern finds from the wars of the 20th century turn up in Europe all the time now that thousands of people have access to very effective and relatively cheap detecting equipment. In the fall of 2017, two Englishmen, John Whittaker and Mike Gaines, found two incredibly well-preserved gold Roman coins, known plurally as “solidii” (singular: “solidus”). The two amateur treasure hunters found the coins in two separate locations in Hampshire, the county in southern England that includes Southampton and Portsmouth. The finds were made near the village of Meonstoke, but the exact location is a secret and protected by law.Meonstoke, Hampshire. Photo by Pterre CC BY 3.0In Great Britain, people who find treasure and do not report it are subject to relatively harsh penalties: up to three months in prison and an unlimited fine determined in a hearing. Britain defines “treasure” as anything older than 300 years.Those who find old objects and guess at their age could find themselves in trouble. People who illegally obtain treasure or do not declare it are referred to as “nighthawks” because they usually operate in the dark to avoid observation.Related Video: Divers Stumble Upon 2,000 ‘Priceless’ Gold CoinsMost of the detectorists and treasure hunters in England and elsewhere are legit; they are history buffs, doing it as a hobby, or even looking to strike it rich, but most obey the law. Unfortunately, there are many people throughout in England and the world who do not report their finds – they make their way onto the black market and their importance to history and science are lost, sometimes forever.So, finds such as the solidii from Hampshire must be reported to the authorities within fourteen days. Interestingly enough, in England, that authority is the local coroner.According to UK law, finds of treasure must be reported to the local coroner within 14 daysItems that are found that are not older than 300 years can be voluntarily reported if they might have historical, cultural or scientific value. In this way, the government, museums, and universities can keep track of finds, study them and reimburse the finders.Anyone finding antiquities on public land must report it to the coroner, and those searching on private land must obtain permission from the owner or be a tenant. On private land, owners are entitled to a share of any profit received from the sale of the treasure to museums, trusts, universities, etc.A hilt fitting from the Staffordshire hoard, which was declared to be treasure in September 2009. Photo by portableantiquities – Hilt Fitting CC BY 2.0In 2014, an amateur detectorist found an Anglo-Saxon treasure hoard near Galloway in Scotland. The treasure was eventually valued at over 2 million pounds. A large number of other hoards have been found in recent years, some valued even more highly.In the case of Whittaker and Gaines’ find, the coroner’s investigation found the coins to be from the Roman occupation of England circa the 4th century AD.One coin was minted in what is now Trier, Germany in 335-36 AD and depicts the late Roman emperor Constans (r.337-350 AD) in a toga and cuirass. On the obverse side is a soldier prince holding the objects of office with two standards behind him.Gold medallion of Constans, equivalent to 9 solidi. Aquileia, 342 AD – Bode MuseumThe other coin depicts Constans’ brother, co-emperor and rival for the throne, Constantine II (r. 337-340 AD). This coin was minted in Siscia, today’s Sisak in Croatia, and shows Constantine II on one side with an olive branch crown and a captive being presented to the emperor on the other.Read another story from us: Hidden Crusader-Era Gold Coins Discovered in Historic Port City of CaesareaAfter an official inquest, the coins were declared to be “treasure” and will likely be offered to a local museum or the British Museum for purchase. Though the monetary value of these coins is not exceptionally high, their historical value is — and because the two men did the right thing, they can now be enjoyed by the public.last_img read more

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James Harden is Russell Westbrook with a beard

first_imgDraft lottery more important than Game 2 for the CavsThe Cavs need to win tonight against Boston to avoid falling into a 0-2 hole in the Eastern Conference Finals, but Colin thinks it’s a distant second in importance to what they have riding on the NBA Draft Lottery.The vaunted “Brooklyn Pick” the Cavs received in the Kyrie Irving trade has only yielded 2 ping pong balls and around a 10% chance of landing one of the top three picks, but Colin thinks if Cleveland can get lucky and get a Top 3 pick it would drastically increase the chance LeBron stays this offseason from about even to maybe 75%.Cleveland could use the pick to trade for a veteran to entice James to stay, or keep the pick if that’s what LeBron wants. Either way, what happens in the lottery tonight will have far more long term ramifications for the Cavs as a franchise and Cleveland as a city than what happens against the Celtics tonight.Also:– Colin’s Top 10 NFL RostersGuests:Doug Gottlieb – FS1 Analyst and host of The Doug Gottlieb Show and the All Ball Podcast is in-studio talking Harden working too hard and why Draymond is the best role player in the NBA.Lee Jenkins – SI Senior Writer is in-studio discussing LeBron’s next decision; why he doesn’t like his options; and why KD makes Golden State an unsolvable puzzle.Mark Schlereth – FS1 NFL Analyst is in-studio discussing the Joe Flacco not returning Lamar Jackson’s texts; why it makes Flacco look insecure; and why Aaron Rodgers would be great for Dez Bryant. James Harden is Russell Westbrook with a beardThe Rockets got thumped in Game 1 against the Warriors and although James Harden finished with 41, his ball dominant iso attack was eventually overwhelmed by the Warriors’ team attack. While Golden State was making the extra pass and assisting on nearly ever basket, the Rockets offense stagnated with Harden regularly dribbling the shot clock down and turning his teammates into spectators. Colin felt like he was watching Russell Westbrook with a beard.Much like Russell Westbrook, Harden is a ball dominant, volume shot taker, who doesn’t get teammates involved, or get assists in the flow of the game. And like Westbrook, playing that style against a dynasty team like the Warriors isn’t gonna get it done.To make matters worse for the Rockets, Steph Curry only had 18 and the Warriors won going away. It’s the difference between a good team and a dynasty.last_img read more

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VIDEO Gigantic 20foot great white may be the largest ever caught on

first_imgApparently, there’s a giant great white shark in Mexico that makes ‘Jaws’ look like a guppy.A segment from Discovery Channel‘s Shark Week showed footage of a cage dive that caught a 20-foot great white nicknamed ‘Deep Blue’ checking out possible snacks during a 2013 cage dive. It’s believed to be the largest white ever caught on camera, and it’s roughly the size of a small submarine. The old girl is believed to be about 50.If you’re in the ocean and see this thing coming at you, it was a good run.last_img read more

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Digital TV Startup Aereo May Wind Up in the Supreme Court

first_img Legal arguments against Aereo, a tech startup that makes it possible for consumers to watch unauthorized digital streams of broadcast programming, may reach the U.S. Supreme Court. This move comes after lower courts gave Aereo the green light to continue allowing this type of streaming, even after broadcasters cried foul. Broadcasters plan to petition the nation’s highest court sometime in the next few days, Variety reports.Founded in 2011, New York City-based Aereo launched its service in March of last year, aiming to change the way people access and watch TV programming. Aereo uses internet-connected antennas to capture broadcast signals and make them available to paying users on any type of device.For months now, big broadcasters — including NBC Universal, ABC and Fox — have been trying to shut Aereo down, claiming that it is stealing and reselling their programming. Aereo doesn’t pay broadcasters for their content. It argues its antennas are legally akin to the ones people already use to watch TV in their own homes.To date, it seems that courts are siding with the startup. In July 2012, a New York federal judge refused to grant an injunction to stop Aereo from operating. And the Second Circuit Court of Appeals denied broadcasters’ request to reconsider the decision of the lower court.Related: TV Startup Aereo Countersues Big BroadcasterToday, a judge in Boston issued a similar ruling in favor of Aereo. “Today’s decision makes clear that there is no reason that consumers should be limited to 1950s technology to access over-the-air broadcast television,” said Chet Kanojia, Aereo’s founder and chief executive, in a statement.In Washington and Los Angeles, however, district court judges found in favor of broadcasters in cases brought against Film On X, a startup similar to Aereo. Film On X appealed the lower court’s decision, but it remains to be seen how the appellate court for the Ninth Circuit will decide. A finding that conflicts with the Second Circuit might persuade the Supreme Court to settle the matter.On the heels of these legal developments comes the announcement today that Aereo will release its first Android app later this month. Currently the service is not available for Android users, though it is accessible via the web on desktop computers and laptops.”At Aereo, we believe consumers should have more choice and control over how they watch television and a big part of that is expanding the universe of devices that they can use to access Aereo’s technology,” Kanojia said in a news release.Until now, Kanojia said, the company had focused on expanding its geographical reach. So far, Aereo’s service is available in seven U.S. cities, including New York, Miami, Atlanta and Dallas.Related: 3 Tips for Doing Deals With Big Companies How Success Happens 3 min read October 10, 2013 Listen Now Opinions expressed by Entrepreneur contributors are their own. Hear from Polar Explorers, ultra marathoners, authors, artists and a range of other unique personalities to better understand the traits that make excellence possible.last_img read more

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