Explore further ‘Electromagnetic Wormhole’ Possible with Invisibility Technology That is, any object within the tunnel is only visible to EM waves that enter at one of the tunnel’s ends. Conversely, any EM waves emitted by an object in the tunnel can only leave through one of the ends. However, Greenleaf says that it’s important to note that the shape of space has not actually been changed, as does happen for Einstein-Rosen wormholes in general relativity.This effect could have interesting applications. For example, a magnetic dipole (such as a bar magnet) placed near one of the ends would, at the other end, appear to approximate a magnetic monopole, a theoretical particle with only one magnetic pole, i.e. that has magnetic charge. True magnetic monopoles have never been discovered, and the work by Greenleaf and his colleagues does not claim otherwise.The scientists propose other possible applications, such as in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), where a wormhole device could be used to allow doctors to operate on a patient while simultaneously imaging the patient. Doctors could insert metal surgical tools into the tunnel area without disturbing the MRI machine’s magnetic field.Another example is an optical computer, where active components could be placed inside wormholes such as to not interact with each other and cause malfunctions.Metamaterials for invisibility, while still in the very early stages of development, are already being researched. Last year, scientists from Duke University created a device that renders a copper disc invisible to observation by microwaves.Citation: Allan Greenleaf, Yaroslav Kurylev, Matti Lassas, and Gunther Uhlmann “Electromagnetic Wormholes and Virtual Magnetic Monopoles from Metamaterials” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 183901 (2007) Copyright 2007 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. Citation: Wormholes on Earth? (2007, November 14) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2007-11-wormholes-earth.html According to a group of mathematicians, it may be possible to create devices with internal tunnels that are invisible to detection by electromagnetic waves—wormholes, in a sense. The group discusses the idea in a paper published in the October 29 online edition of Physical Review Letters. The scientists say that by custom designing the values of two parameters that describe electromagnetic (EM) materials, the electrical permittivity and magnetic permeability, around and inside a cylinder, a novel optical device could be produced. Essentially, most of the device would be invisible to detection by external EM radiation of a certain frequency, with only the ends of the cylinder being visible and accessible to the EM waves.“The chosen values for the permittivity and permeability would cause the coating to manipulate EM waves in a way that is not seen in nature,” explained University of Rochester mathematician Allan Greenleaf, one of the paper’s authors, to PhysOrg.com.Permittivity is a measure of a material’s readiness to become electrically polarized in response to an applied electric field (how well it “permits” the field). Permeability describes how magnetized a material becomes when a magnetic field is applied. Modern EM materials known as metamaterials allow theoretical designs, such as a wormhole, to be physically constructed, at least in principle.Greenleaf and his colleagues, Yaroslav Kurylev of University College in London, Matti Lassas of the Helsinki University of Technology, and Gunther Uhlmann of the University of Washington, use the word “wormhole” in more of a mathematical sense than physical. That is, the devices would act as wormholes from the viewpoint of Maxwell’s equations, the four fundamental equations that describe the relationship between electric fields, magnetic fields, electric charge, and electric current.For any other frequencies than those for which the permittivity and permeability were designed, the tunnel region would look roughly like a solid cylinder. But for the right frequencies, says Greenleaf, “the tunnel has the effect of changing the topology of space. The electromagnetic waves behave as though they are propagating through a space to which a handle has been attached, in the same way that ants crawling on the door of your refrigerator have two ways to get from one end of the handle to the other: by traveling over the handle or on the flat surface underneath.” This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Citation: Scientists Image the ‘Anatomy’ of a Molecule (w/ Video) (2009, August 28) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-08-scientists-image-anatomy-molecule-video.html (PhysOrg.com) — For the first time, IBM researchers in Zurich, Switzerland, have taken a 3D image of an individual molecule. Using an atomic force microscope, the researchers constructed a “force map” of pentacene, an organic molecule just 1.4 nanometers long. As the researchers explain, the technique is roughly analogous to how an x-ray machine images bones in the human body by looking through flesh. In this case, the scientists could look through the electron cloud and see the atomic backbone of the molecule. (Top) The force map image of pentacene, and (bottom) a textbook model. Twenty-two carbon atoms (gray balls) form five interconnected hexagonal rings. Fourteen hydrogen atoms (white balls) bind to the carbon atoms. Credit: IBM. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Researchers Create Microscope With 100 Million Times Finer Resolution Than Current MRI Explore further To overcome these challenges, the IBM researchers, led by Leo Gross, modified the atomic force microscope technique. The team used a tip with a carbon monoxide molecule, held just 0.4 mm above the molecule, to balance competing forces that occur at this tiny range. While the attractive van der Waals force tries to pull the microscope tip and molecule together, a quantum mechanical effect based on the Pauli exclusion principle repels the electrons around the pentacene and those around the carbon monoxide molecule.By measuring the repulsive force of the tip at each point, the researchers could construct the force map of the molecule. To achieve significant detail, the researchers focused the microscope for 20 hours of data acquisition, operating in an ultrahigh vacuum at very low temperatures (5 Kelvin). As IBM stated in a press release, the results push the exploration of using molecules and atoms at the smallest scale and could greatly impact the field of nanotechnology.”Scanning probe techniques offer amazing potential for prototyping complex functional structures and for tailoring and studying their electronic and chemical properties on the atomic scale,” said IBM researcher Gerhard Meyer.For instance, the technique could open the door to more powerful computers whose components are built with precisely positioned atoms and molecules. Researchers could also gain insight into molecular-level activity, such as the actions of catalysts in reactions, and how molecular geometry changes when changing the charge of a molecule. “These breakthroughs will open new possibilities for investigating how charge transmits through molecules or molecular networks,” IBM stated. “Understanding the charge distribution at the atomic scale is essential for building smaller, faster and more energy-efficient computing components than today’s processors and memory devices.”More information: Leo Gross, Fabian Mohn, Nikolaj Moll, Peter Liljeroth, and Gerhard Meyer. “The Chemical Structure of a Molecule Resolved by Atomic Force Microscopy.” Science, 28 August 2009: Vol. 325. no. 5944, pp. 1110 – 1114. DOI: 10.1126/science.1176210.© 2009 PhysOrg.com To create an image, the atomic force microscope uses a sharp metal tip to measure the tiny forces between the tip and the pentacene molecule. Pentacene is an oblong molecule that consists of 22 carbon atoms and 14 hydrogen atoms, with the carbon atoms spaced just 0.14 nanometers apart. In the image, the five hexagonal shaped carbon rings, the carbon atoms, and the positions of the hydrogen atoms can be seen.Although researchers have previously imaged atoms, imaging molecules is more difficult due to their fragility. While techniques such as transmission electron microscopy can bombard materials with electrons in order to view atoms, the electron bombardment destroys the arrangement of atoms in molecules.
(PhysOrg.com) — Ford Motor Company has been showing of its concept E-Bike at the Frankfort auto show. Though the company says it’s isn’t likely to actually sell the bike, it does offer some striking features. For one thing, it’s unisex; there’s no bar between the seat and handlebars to differentiate between boy or girl model. Also, they’ve hidden the stuff that makes it go. Though it does power itself, you’d never know looking at it. The motor is hidden away in the front axle works, and the battery is hidden in the frame. Thus, onlookers might be forgiven for confusing it with an ordinary bike as it also features pedals. But perhaps the thing that draws the most notice is the upfront display. It’s a Samsung Galaxy S2 Smartphone. And not only does it do all the things Smartphones are known for, but it serves as an interface between the rider and the inner workings of the bike. Explore further The company has also implemented custom developed magnetostriction sensor technology that it says it borrowed from Formula I race cars. Such technology allows for the conversion of magnetic energy into kinetic, and the other way around. The sensors read bearing information making the transition from pedaling to electric power seamless.The Concept E-Bike was developed in conjunction with cyber-Wear, the German company that runs Ford’s Lifestyle Collection (marketing products) such as sunglasses, watches, jackets, gloves etc. The idea it appears, is to use the E-Bike as a marketing tool to show off Ford’s ability to produce cutting edge technology. © 2011 PhysOrg.com Toyota comissions a Prius bike On its site, Ford says that the display (Smartphone) can be used to allow the rider to choose from three different “support” modes: Economy, Comfort and Sport. It appears these modes allow the user to change the tightness of the suspension so as to provide the best ride for different types of environments, e.g. bumpy, off-road, street, etc. It can also be used as a message display to notify the rider of things going wrong with the bike, as a fuel gauge and as a means of displaying data such as speed, distance traveled, etc.The bike can go up to 16 mph, (25 kilometers/hour) and weighs just five and a half pounds (2.5 kilograms). It can go about 53 miles (85 kilometers) on average, which means riders could put the Smartphone’s GPS capabilities to good use as they glide along. Citation: Ford concept E-Bike has smartphone built in (2011, September 21) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-09-ford-concept-e-bike-smartphone-built.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
© 2013 Phys.org Volkswagen said the XL1 will be the most fuel-efficient production vehicle in the world. The car sets a record, as the 261 mpg figure has not been achieved by any other vehicle to date, according to the company. According to the company, the XL1 emits 21 g/km of CO2; the two-seat vehicle can cover up to 32 miles as a “zero-emissions vehicle” in an all-electric mode. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. There is no official word on pricing; analysts’ estimates run from 30,000 to 50,000 euros. As for production plans, Volkswagen intends to carry out a small production series; the XL1 is to be produced at the company’s Osnabrück plant in Germany. The process for the XL1 is described as “automotive handcrafting,” More information: www.vwvortex.com/news/volkswag … l1-gets-green-light/ Measurements for the XL1 are 153.1 inches long, 65.6 in wide, and 45.4 high. The XL1’s total weight is 1,753 pounds, and several auto sites consider this figure impressive given the added weight of a battery pack and electric motor. The car has a futurist design; features include enclosed rear wheels, butterfly doors, and camera-based rearview mirrors integrated into the door panels. Volkswagen used special lightweight material for the vehicle’s construction, producing parts of the XL1 in light but strong carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP). Power for the XL1 is provided by a system with details as follows: A two-cylinder TDI engine (35 kW / 48 PS), E-motor (20 kW / 27 PS), 7-speed dual clutch gearbox (DSG) and lithium-ion battery, The car has a top speed of 99 mph. In announcing the XL1, Volkswagen said that “When the new millennium was ushered in, Prof. Dr. Ferdinand Piëch, who is today Chairman of the Supervisory Board of Volkswagen AG, formulated the visionary goal of bringing to market a production car that was practical in everyday use with fuel consumption of one liter per 100 km. In the two-seat XL1, this vision has become reality.” Explore further (Phys.org)—Volkswagen will debut its XL1 two-seater, plug-in hybrid at the Geneva Auto Show in March. Publicity and blog previews are pointing to the car’s considerable design and technical features. The company views its XL1 as a significant standout. Volkswagen is emphasizing that the car represents a first in fuel economy. The car’s 261 miles per gallon combined fuel consumption is touted as a real achievement. Volkswagen’s XL1 said to be world’s most economical car Citation: Volkswagen will debut XL1 hybrid at March auto show (2013, February 24) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-02-volkswagen-debut-xl1-hybrid-auto.html
The researchers, Jonathan A. Fan, et al., from institutions in the US, China, Korea, and Singapore, have published a paper on the benefits of fractal wire patterns for stretchable electronics in a recent issue of Nature Communications.In general, a main challenge in designing stretchable electronics is maintaining good electronic functionality while enabling stretching of up to twice the normal device size. Some of the most successful approaches to achieving both of these goals involve combining two separate components: a hard component that provides high conductivity and a soft component that provides mechanical stretchability. The dual-component nature of these devices raises the question of how hard and soft materials can be ideally integrated.The results of the new study show that fractal patterns offer a promising approach to hard-soft materials integration, and suggest that fractal patterns can influence the mechanical properties of 2D materials. In the new devices, the hard metal wires are engineered into fractal designs and then bonded to soft elastomers.”We have established an approach, with general utility, for configuring hard materials with soft ones, in ways that have immediate relevance in all areas of stretchable electronics,” coauthor John Rogers, Professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, told Phys.org. “The resulting properties also provide advanced capabilities in stretchable/conformal devices and sensors, not only electronic, but photonic, optoelectronic and photovoltaic as well.” (Phys.org) —Fractals—patterns defined by their scale-invariance that makes them look the same on large scales as they do on small scales—are found in nature everywhere from snowflakes to broccoli to the beating of the heart. In a new study, researchers have demonstrated that metal wires patterned in various fractal motifs, when integrated into elastic materials, enable highly stretchable electronic devices. The fractal wire patterns could lead to a variety of new devices, such as biomedical sensors that can be attached to the skin and that have unique properties such as invisibility under magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Explore further Citation: Fractal wire patterns enhance stretchability of electronic devices (2014, February 18) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-02-fractal-wire-patterns-stretchability-electronic.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. This control provided by fractal patterns could allow researchers to tailor stretchable electronics devices for different applications, depending on the type of stretching required. One potential application is “epidermal electronics,” or skin-mounted sensors and actuators. A common example is electrodes, which measure electrophysiological processes in the brain, heart and muscle. To optimize the level of connectivity, the electrodes must conform to the skin, which has a stretchability of up to 20%. The researchers found that electrodes made with the Greek cross fractal pattern offer a high connectivity, stretchability, and robustness that enables them to compare favorably to conventional gel-based electrodes.Fractal patterns could also have applications for radio-frequency devices, which could enable electrodes that are compatible with MRI scans. The researchers performed MRI experiments comparing electrodes made from three types of fractal patterns, two variants of serpentine (non-fractal) patterns, a pattern consisting of superimposed vertical and horizontal lines, and no pattern. While the serpentine patterns and unpatterned samples contained shadows that distorted the images, the fractal samples showed no shadows or distortion. The researchers attribute this difference to the highly interconnected closed loops of metal in the serpentine patterns; in contrast, the fractals do not contain closed loops, so they do not couple to RF radiation and are therefore invisible under MRI. The results suggest that fractal patterns offer a promising route to future MRI-compatible skin-mounted or implanted electrodes and other electronic devices.In the future, the researchers plan to investigate further applications of fractals in electronics.”We are now exploiting these same ideas to move from electrodes and test structures of silicon, to active materials for stretchable LEDs and solar cells, with a next goal of producing full functional systems in these types of layouts,” Rogers said. (a) Fractal-inspired patterns for hard-soft materials integration, with (b) FEM images and (c) MicroXCT images. Credit: Fan, et al. ©2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited (Top) Image of metal wires with the Peano fractal pattern, with an overall geometry that spells out the characters in ‘ILLINOIS’, mounted on skin. Optical (lower left) and scanning electron (lower right) microscopy images of Peano-based wires on skin and a skin-replica (colorized metal wires), respectively, show how the wires conform to the substrate. Credit: Fan, et al. ©2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited More information: Jonathan A. Fan. “Fractal design concepts for stretchable electronics.” Nature Communications. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms4266 Journal information: Nature Communications Fractal plumage indicates bird fitness In their experiments, the researchers investigated several different fractal patterns, including Peano, Greek cross, Vicsek, and others. They found that these fractal patterns offer key advantages over other patterns, such as periodic loops and serpentine shapes investigated in previous studies. With the Peano pattern, for example, the researchers showed that modifying the orientation of the pattern enhances the material’s elastic strain in one or more selected directions, and allows the pattern to support different types of deformations. Previously explored wire patterns do not offer the ability to control the strain and deformation in these ways. © 2014 Phys.org. All rights reserved.
Explore further “Ongoing solar missions have given us guidance on optimal solar surface observations to support modeling so that improved estimates on the CME magnetic structure and energy content, as well as the propagation in the heliosphere can be achieved,” the researchers wrote in the report.The main goal is to obtain forecasts more than 12 hours ahead of the magnetic structure of incoming CMEs and their impact in geospace to improve alerts for geomagnetic disturbances.According to the report authors, ground- and space-based instrumentation should be increased to complement satellite data of the magnetospheric and ionospheric variability to cover gaps.The roadmap emphasizes the need for coordinated and complementary actions to better shield society from the effects of extreme solar activity. The scientists note that space weather is a real and permanent hazard to our civilizations that needs to be addressed by combining scientific research with engineering ingenuity. The problem should be perceived as still escalating, having in mind that with advancements in technology, society becomes more vulnerable to solar events.Conclusions from the report promise more accurate space weather forecasting and offer hope of future advancements in the understanding of the solar phenomena. The scientists predict that within the span of the next five to 10 years, we will see major progress regarding our comprehension of these space events and our ability to react to the sun’s violent lifecycle.The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), established in 1958, is an interdisciplinary scientific body concerned with progress on an international scale of all kinds of scientific investigations carried out with space vehicles, rockets and balloons.The International Living With a Star (ILWS), established in 2002, is an international organization dedicated to the advancement of space weather science missions and research. Nation’s first operational satellite in deep space reaches final orbit (c) 2015 Phys.org The authors of the plan strongly emphasize that battling the effects of extreme solar activity is an international challenge. Changes in the sun’s magnetic field affect the whole planet, thus worldwide observations and substantial resources are needed to address the problem.Space weather impacts numerous aspects of our lives, including Earth’s climate, satellites, navigation systems, radio communications, and power grid. Severe space storms could result in perturbations in the electric power system and could cause loss of satellites. Therefore, extreme solar events could be catastrophic with severe consequences for millions of people.”Mitigating against the impacts of space weather can be improved by designing less susceptible, more resilient technologies, combined with better environmental knowledge and more reliable forecasts,” the report reads. “This roadmap outlines how we can achieve deeper understanding and better forecasts, recognizing that the expectations for space weather information differ between societal sectors, and that capabilities to observe or model space weather phenomena depend on available and anticipated technologies.”The scientists behind the roadmap recommend the extensive use of current spacecraft in service, which are designed to study the sun’s activity. The fleet of active space observatories includes NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Japanese Hinode, providing solar magnetic maps. Solar coronagraphy acquired by NASA/ESA SOHO spacecraft and NASA’s STEREO probes, is also essential for forecast purposes. Moreover, measurements of the solar-wind plasma and magnetic field delivered by NASA’s Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite and its successor, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) DSCOVR probe will bring crucial data as well.These observations made by numerous scientific spacecraft enable estimation of arrival times of the various solar events. For example, huge explosions of magnetic field and plasma from the sun’s corona, known as coronal mass ejections (CMEs), can reach Earth in as little as 14 to 17 hours. When CMEs impact the Earth’s magnetosphere, they are responsible for geomagnetic storms and enhanced aurorae. In order to predict the strength of the resulting geomagnetic storm, estimates of the magnetic field strength and direction are important. At the present time, the magnetic field cannot be determined until it is measured as the CME passes over a monitoring satellite. Citation: Global roadmap for better understanding space weather released (2015, July 6) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-07-global-roadmap-space-weather.html More information: “Understanding space weather to shield society: A global road map for 2015–2025 commissioned by COSPAR and ILWS,” Advances in Space Research, Volume 55, Issue 12, 15 June 2015, Pages 2745-2807, ISSN 0273-1177, dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2015.03.023 (Phys.org)—The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the International Living With a Star (ILWS) organization have released a global roadmap for 2015-2025 focusing on better understanding how the phenomena of space weather affect our daily activities on Earth. The strategic plan calls for a coordinated international approach to study the violent solar activity and showcases the research areas that need more attention in order to fully protect our planet from the effects of space weather. The roadmap was published on June 15 in the journal Advances in Space Research. Overview of the primary impacts and their societal sectors of space weather. The red shading in the background indicates the priority needs for the user communities behind each of the impacts, differentiated by time scale for forecast or for archival information as shown on the left. Text boxes identify the primary needed observations, archival measurements, and models to complete the impact chain, differentiated (using color, see legend) by solar, heliospheric, and geospace domains. Credit: Advances in Space Research, Volume 55, Issue 12, 15 June 2015, Pages 2745-2807, ISSN 0273-1177, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2015.03.023 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further More information: Compositional data supports decentralized model of production and circulation of artifacts in the pre-Columbian south-central Andes. PNAS 2017 114 (20) E3917-E3926; published ahead of print May 1, 2017, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1610494114AbstractThe circulation and exchange of goods and resources at various scales have long been considered central to the understanding of complex societies, and the Andes have provided a fertile ground for investigating this process. However, long-standing archaeological emphasis on typological analysis, although helpful to hypothesize the direction of contacts, has left important aspects of ancient exchange open to speculation. To improve understanding of ancient exchange practices and their potential role in structuring alliances, we examine material exchanges in northwest Argentina (part of the south-central Andes) during 400 BC to AD 1000 (part of the regional Formative Period), with a multianalytical approach (petrography, instrumental neutron activation analysis, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) to artifacts previously studied separately. We assess the standard centralized model of interaction vs. a decentralized model through the largest provenance database available to date in the region. The results show: (i) intervalley heterogeneity of clays and fabrics for ordinary wares; (ii) intervalley homogeneity of clays and fabrics for a wide range of decorated wares (e.g., painted Ciénaga); (iii) selective circulation of two distinct polychrome wares (Vaquerías and Condorhuasi); (iv) generalized access to obsidian from one major source and various minor sources; and (v) selective circulation of volcanic rock tools from a single source. These trends reflect the multiple and conflicting demands experienced by people in small-scale societies, which may be difficult to capitalize by aspiring elites. The study undermines centralized narratives of exchange for this period, offering a new platform for understanding ancient exchange based on actual material transfers, both in the Andes and beyond. The study challenges existing centralized network models of interaction in favor of a decentralized network structure. The researchers built the largest provenance database ever constructed for the region, taking a multianalytical approach that considered lithic sources, pottery analysis, and comparisons of clays and fabrics. These materials and artifacts had previously only been studied separately. The wide-ranging collection of data resulted in a complex, sprawling portrait of northwest Argentina during the Formative Period.This era was characterized by the slow development of sedentary societies with subsistence and crafting technologies. In older studies, researchers reconstructed regional networks based on typological similarities between materials and artifacts. The new study attempts to investigate interactions between both local and regional networks in the Andes during this period by comparing the manufacture and sources of materials, as opposed only to looking at styles.For instance, an examination of obsidian artifacts demonstrated that they shared a common source. But the differences between the cultural styles and assemblages demonstrated that many groups from different communities and cultures shared access to the same source. This allowed the researchers to create a regional network representing the movement and propagation of this source of rock.The petrography analysis of ceramics sources revealed a variety of technical production modes. The researchers found distinct chemical fingerprints for ceramic artifacts found in specific valleys and areas. “This pattern strongly suggests that there was a set of middle-range distance connections involving not only the circulation of raw materials and artifacts, but also the transmission of skills and concepts of manufacture and design that were not exclusionary,” the authors note.Notably, the study did not find characteristic artifacts from the Ambato Valley—these are distinctive gray-black wares found in past archaeological excavations that did not seem to spread among the regions encompassed by the current study. This calls into question the presumed centrality of the Ambato Valley as a node within the regional trade network. “Together with the observed low frequency of painted Aguado varieties in our core study area, the results of the geochemical analysis support a reconsideration of the purported central role of this valley,” the researchers write.The study concludes that the area supported many circulation networks involving multiple means of transport, including the presumed use of llamas. Additionally, local networks of different types were incorporated into larger regional networks that best served the needs of communities during that period–needs that were not necessarily dictated by either socio-political considerations or the desires of cultural elites. “Focusing on close intercommunity links rooted on common craft practices rather than solely on stylistic reconstructions is a more fruitful avenue to explore the ancient circulation of goods, skills, and people without assuming the capacity of early elites to manipulate and capitalize on such networks,” the authors conclude. © 2017 Phys.org (Phys.org)—The study of ancient civilizations, particularly those that did not leave extensive writing in the archaeological record, is reliant on the evidence of other kinds of material artifacts. And one of the keys to understanding large, complex societies is mapping the circulation of such artifacts. An international research collaborative recently published a study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on the production and circulation of artifacts in the south-central Andes during 400 BC to 1000 AD. Albania stops smugglers of 230 ancient Apollonia artifacts Distribution routes for obsidian sources, decorated MG2 and MG7 pottery wares, Vaquerías and Condorhuasi wares, and type 1 vulcanite. Credit: (c) PNAS 2017 114 (20) E3917-E3926; published ahead of print May 1, 2017, doi:10.1073/pnas.1610494114 Citation: Study provides surprisingly complex portrait of ancient trade networks (2017, May 23) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-05-surprisingly-complex-portrait-ancient-networks.html
Citation: New type of light interaction with atoms allows for manipulating cloud shape (2017, October 24) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-10-interaction-atoms-cloud.html More information: Noam Matzliah et al. Observation of Optomechanical Strain in a Cold Atomic Cloud, Physical Review Letters (2017). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.163201 Up until now, scientists have used two main techniques to manipulate atoms with light. The first involves firing a laser at a single atom to change its momentum. The other has been to cause an atom to “feel” an electric field force associated with a beam of light. Now, researchers have developed a third technique—one that involves firing a laser at an atom cloud.The experiments involved creating a spherical cloud consisting of nothing but millions of cold rubidium-87 atoms. The researchers then fired a pulse of infrared light at the cloud (the frequency was described as “far detuned” from rubidium-87 transitions) and found the cloud responded by behaving similarly to a lens, deflecting the light and causing the cloud to become longer and thinner—the light beam essentially squished the sphere into a new shape. The researchers note that the parameters of the beam they fired at the cloud had been idealized to reduce the force between the light’s electric field and the individual rubidium atoms. The researchers suggest the change in cloud shape resulted from the collective effect of the laser acting on all of the atoms in the cloud—conservation of momentum caused the atoms to respond to a force pushing against them in a direction opposite the deflection. The team has invented a term to describe the overall effect: electrostriction. They note that they ran their experiments on booth Bose-Einstein condensates and clouds at higher temperatures.Because it is a global optical force, the researchers note, it could be easily modified to allow for easy tuning of interactions with lasers—an improvement over the current cumbersome method. They suggest their technique might prove useful in future cold atom experiments because it allows inducing interparticle interactions that can be easily turned. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. A team of researchers at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel has found a new way to manipulate atoms using light. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the new technique and possible uses for it. Credit: Physical Review Letters (2017). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.163201 Proposed method to cause an atom to emit the same light as another atom Journal information: Physical Review Letters © 2017 Phys.org Explore further
Asking young girls to “do science” leads them to show greater persistence in science activities than does asking them to “be scientists,” researchers at New York University and Princeton University find. The study results are published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science. Rhodes and her coauthors, who include Princeton’s Sarah-Jane Leslie, note that the messaging children often receive through television shows centers on identity rather than action when it comes to science. Additional coauthors on the work include Kathryn Yee, a researcher in NYU’s Department of Psychology at the time of the study, and Katya Saunders, a postdoctoral researcher in NYU’s Department of Psychology. “Describing science as actions, by saying ‘let’s do science,’ leads to more science engagement than does describing science in terms of identities, by asking them to ‘be scientists,’” explains Marjorie Rhodes, an associate professor in NYU’s Department of Psychology and the senior author of the study. These findings suggest that efforts encouraging girls to enter science—a field in which they are underrepresented—might benefit from focusing on describing the activity of doing science rather than on encouraging children to adopt scientist identities, at least in early childhood. “The roots of gender disparities in science achievement take hold in early childhood,” Rhodes observes. “This research identifies an element of children’s environments that could be targeted to reduce early gender differences in science behavior among young children.” This research was supported, in part, by a grant from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development of the National Institutes of Health (R01HD087672). Notably, girls who were initially asked to “do science” showed more persistence on the subsequent science game than did girls who had been asked to “be scientists.” “These effects particularly hold for children who are the target of stereotypes suggesting that they might not be the kind of person who succeeds in science—in this case, girls,” she adds. Children were then asked to complete a new science game designed to illustrate the scientific method. Persistence was measured by how long they continued to play this game. By contrast, the effects of language for boys were more variable. For instance, one of their studies found that boys younger than 5 years old showed greater persistence when language was action-oriented while those older than 5 revealed higher levels of persistence when language was identity-oriented. In the newly published Psychological Science work, the researchers conducted four studies with children aged 4 to 9 years old. Here, the children received an introduction to science that described science as an identity (“Let’s be scientists! Scientists explore the world and discover new things!”) or as action (“Let’s do science! Doing science means exploring the world and discovering new things!”). Overall, these findings suggest that identity-focused language can undermine persistence in some children as they acquire new skills, particularly when cultural stereotypes lead children to question if they hold the relevant identity. All data, materials, and analytic code are publicly available via the Open Science Framework. This article has received the badges for Open Data and Open Materials.
Finance Minister Arun Jaitley on Friday promised more capital infusion into public sector banks, saying there’s “merit” in their demand for more funds over and above what was provided in the Budget. “Banks have made a strong case for additional capital…And over the next few months, this is something the government is going to seriously look at,” Jaitley said after meeting heads of PSU banks here.“…I do believe it’s a case which has merit (attention).” The government has earmarked Rs 7,940 crore in the Budget for recapitalisation of PSU banks for the current fiscal. The statement assumes significance as RBI Deputy Governor S S Mundra had yesterday said the Budget amount marked for recapitalisation of PSU banks is not adequate and RBI has asked the Finance Ministry to raise the quantum of assistance in view of mounting bad loans and support growth. On additional quantum to be infused, Jaitley